09.12.2021 | Facade

Rope access technology on facades - all information at a glance

Definition, benefits, system, processes, legal foundations & more. Buildings are becoming higher, more modern, more complex, more spacious... The safety technology for working at height on these buildings must be correspondingly well-developed and flexible. This is why agile and dynamic rope access technology is being used with increasing frequency. It provides optimum fusing of aesthetics and safety on facades, and simultaneously provides the users with maximum flexibility when performing facade tasks such as cleaning, servicing, or repairs.

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Specialist series: Fall protection for facades


7 tips on installing concealed fall protection systems on façades, with or without rope access technology

Safety systems should not spoil the aesthetics of the façade. Nevertheless, they are important for maintenance & cleaning. The imposing glass structure was in the spotlight when it was time for cleaning the windows, because nobody had thought about the fall protection system required for this on the building’s unusual façade. So that you avoid being confronted with exactly this challenge, we have put together 7 tips for concealed fall protection and rope access technology.


Correct planning and implementation of rope access technology on facades

Fall protection with rope access technology is an ideal solution for facades if they are also planned in good time. Architects increasingly decide to install rope access technology. The best way to integrate the rope access technology seamlessly into the building structures is to factor it in at the planning stage. The challenges arising during planning and implementation and the mistakes to avoid are summarised below.


Holistic rescue concept for facades

After a fall every minute counts. Of course, the goal must be to avoid accidents through even better planning, equipment and training. If accidents do happen, rescue measures must be professionally prepared in order to keep the consequences as low as possible. One missing link to the rescue chain can lead to serious injuries and death. In this article you will learn how rescue concepts are prepared in connection with facade work and how rescue measures are to be carried out in an emergency.


What is rope access technology and what are its benefits for facades?

Safety & beauty on facades - no problem with rope access technology. Because of very differing facade types, a safety system is required with which the user can reach otherwise inaccessible locations for cleaning and servicing tasks. This is particularly where the illusion of safety occurs more quickly than most people would like. Thanks to its great flexibility and high safety standards, one process which currently enjoys favour is rope access technology. In this article, we explain to you the concept and its benefits.


5 modern facade types on which rope access technology is possible

Facades differ greatly. Every facade is unique and has its own special requirements in terms of safety, because each building shell must be cared for, serviced and, where necessary, repaired. In order to avoid the illusion of safety, a sustainable safety concept is therefore absolutely essential. In this blog, we would like to introduce to you 5 facade types where we have already gained experience in the past and were able to apply fall protection using rope access technology.


A day’s work in rope access technology for facades

Safety is created above all through the correct workflow. Since 2019 rope access technology has been officially registered in TRBS 2121 as authorised working equipment. It is a rope-supported access process for installation, cleaning, and service tasks on facades. A debriefing and analysis takes place afterwards. In our blog, we’d like to show you this chronology for the individual steps of rope access technology, and to explain each of them briefly.


Rope access technology on facades - all information at a glance

Definition, benefits, system, processes, legal foundations & more. Buildings are becoming higher, more modern, more complex, more spacious... The safety technology for working at height on these buildings must be correspondingly well-developed and flexible. This is why agile and dynamic rope access technology is being used with increasing frequency. It provides optimum fusing of aesthetics and safety on facades, and simultaneously provides the users with maximum flexibility when performing facade tasks such as cleaning, servicing, or repairs.


All-round protection on facades with the (S)TOP application principle

Industrial safety on facades is essential. Dangerous behaviour in the workplace must be avoided under all circumstances. In our example, the solution would be suitable fall protection for cleaning the ceiling-high window. Ideally, risks are already eliminated in advance,e.g. by means of correct workflows. We now consider, in terms of facade safety systems, what the acronym (S)TOP represents and what lies behind it.


7 steps of risk assessment of facades

Tasks on facades harbour risks which have to be minimised. Safety concepts for risks of falling from facades, on roofs, and also in industry have been our special field since 2001. Facade safety is an especially exciting area, because there are an incredible number of different facade types, each with its very own requirements.


How To Achieve the Optimal Invitation to Tender for Facade Protection

Our experts share their best tips. The earlier the technical advice and planning for facade protection takes place, the better you’ll have your costs under control and the more successful you’ll be in the tendering process. Discover our 3 professional tips for this.


Fall Protection for Facades: How Much Does it Cost?

All cost items at a glance. Roland K. opens the envelope and pulls out a multi-page stack of paper, and his heart almost stops. The offer for securing the facade of his current construction project is much higher than he’d previously calculated in the tender. Our architect Roland K. here could have avoided this sinking feeling that comes with discovering unanticipated costs. Because with good and early planning, cost-effective solutions for fall protection on your facade can be found. Read on and find out what the costs are made up of, and how you can plan and implement facade security in a way that will save you money.


Whoops, facade safety forgotten – what can be done?

Necessary steps & expert tips that work. Inclusion of an experienced expert for facade safety early in the project pays for itself in the end, through appropriate know-how and attractive cost benefit advantages. And even if the fall protection system has been forgotten, a partner like this usually has a final ace up his sleeve.


Fall protection on facades: 2 best practice examples

Stylishly matched to the project’s architecture. For every fall protection system, the focus is on saving lives. A holistic, sustainable safety concept for the facade safety system is the best possible gain for construction projects. At the same time, the safety system should integrate into the overall concept of the building, and complement the architecture. Discover two best practice examples for façade protection below.


High-level view of fall protection on facades

Fall protection on facades needs to be stylish and safe. Every year, hundreds of people suffer accidents on roofs, facades, and other workplaces at height. The shockingly high number of such accidents could be reduced if suitable fall protection systems were in use. However, at the same time the facade safety system should not detract from the beauty of the building, because every structure has its own aesthetic value.

Fall protection for Lobster’s facade

Even very modern facades also need fall protection

Time to travel new paths. That’s the motto of Lobster Data GmbH in Tutzing (Bavaria). But it’s not just as a software provider that Lobster puts its faith in developing and selling highly innovative solutions. Recently the company management decided to travel new paths in terms of safety too.

Med Campus Linz - safe facades with TAURUS

Safety at dizzying heights: TAURUS from INNOTECH as fall protection for the MED CAMPUS Linz

The building’s modern, aesthetic facade, designed by the LORENZATELIERS architectural practice, obviously has to be cleaned and maintained regularly. So that these cleaning and maintenance tasks on the external components of the facade, plus the window and glass elements, were made as safe as possible, those responsible decided on a TAURUS professional fall protection system.

TAURUS for façade protection at Axel Springer

TAURUS rail system, the perfect fall protection system for all types of modern facades

Regardless of the facade type, the topic of safety is always of decisive importance. Especially for intelligent facades which adapt to different weather conditions and to the actual position of the sun, regular servicing and cleaning is always necessary. Find out in this post how TAURUS is the optimum solution as fall protection for facades.

Rope access technology (SZT for short) is a recognised method for enabling work in places that are difficult to access, such as building facades.

Michael Pett

What is rope access technology?

Rope access technology is a recognised process for enabling tasks to be performed at difficult-to-access positions, such as on building facades. For what we call industrial climbing or facade climbing, the international designation “rope access” is usual. Typical areas of use for workers at height include inspections, repairs, and cleaning on wind turbines, facades, towers, and silos, as well as production and storage halls. On facades, rope access technology functions very well as an alternative to raised working platforms or facade scaffolding. Here, the major benefits of rope access technology are:

  • Fast and flexible operational capability of the industrial climbers


  • Cost savings, because rental and installation costs for conventional access equipment no longer arise


  • No impediments or restrictions to surrounding areas from scaffolding or lifting platforms


While fall protection systems are primarily intended as passive safety systems whose primary duty consists of trapping a fall, in rope access technology the rope is permanently under load, and is a component of the activities on the facade.


Rope access technology systems

The rope access technology system can be designed as either single anchor points or as a rail system (e.g. TAURUS), depending on the requirements in terms of:

  • Aesthetics


  • Situation-related circumstances


  • Time requirement


  • Facade type


Technically speaking, an economical system for servicing and repair in exposed locations can often be achieved only by means of rope access technology. This safety solution optimally unifies safety and aesthetics.

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Legal foundations for rope access technology on facades

The legal basis which is decisive for the European Union derives from Directive 2009/104/EC. For workers at height and industrial climbers, the two ISO standards ISO 22846-1 (Rope Access Systems - Principles) and ISO 22846-2 (Rope Access Systems - Code of practice) are also of importance. They contain the first attempt at an international level to define all equipment, processes, and training required for rope access technologies.


Legal foundation in Austria

In Austria the relevant provisions of the directive were implemented in § 6 section 7f of the Bauarbeiterschutzverordnung (BauV [construction worker protection regulation]) in particular. This states that rope access technology may be implemented only if:

  • the determination and assessment of the dangers have indicated that the work can be performed safely, and that the use of other equipment (…) is not warranted


  • suitable personal protective equipment is used to protect the employees


  • the working line must include a self-securing system which functions as fall protection


  • careful planning and monitoring ensure that immediate assistance can be provided to employees if required


  • the employees are specially trained, particularly regarding working and rescue processes

Furthermore, the general provisions of § 4 and § 5 of the ArbeitnehmerInnenschutzgesetz [act on protection of workers] must be complied with, especially in terms of determining and assessing dangers, and regarding documentation requirements. In addition, for working and safety systems, regulation 2016/425 (EU) (“regarding personal protective equipment and the repeal of directive 89/686/EEC of the Council”) is also pertinent. The Labour Inspectorate of the Federal Ministry of Labour provides a general overview of this.


Legal foundation in Germany

In Germany, Directive 2009/104/EC was implemented in the Betriebssicherheitsverordnung (BetrSichV [ordinance on industrial safety and health]). In Germany, this governs the provision of work equipment by the employer, the use of work equipment by the employees while working, and the setting up and operation of equipment requiring monitoring in terms of worker protection. It accordingly also states that rope access technology may be used “if the risk assessment finds that the affected work can be performed safely”.

The technical rules for industrial safety (TRBS) are also significant for the authorisation of rope access technology as working equipment.These reflect the state of the art, of occupational medicine and hygiene for the provision and use of work equipment and for the operation of equipment requiring monitoring, at the time of publishing the rules. They are compiled by the Ausschuss für Betriebssicherheit [Committee on Work Equipment], and fully replace the operating regulations from previous technical rules such as TRA, TRB, TRR, TRD and TRAC.


Legal foundation in Switzerland

In Switzerland, articles 28ff of Verordnung über die Sicherheit und den Gesundheitsschutz der Arbeitnehmerinnen und Arbeitnehmer bei Bauarbeiten (BauAV [Regulation relating to safety and protection of health of workers during construction work]) and articles 5, 8, and 32a of the Verordnung über die Verhütung von Unfällen und Berufskrankheiten (VUV [Regulation relating to prevention of accidents and occupational illnesses]), are to be applied in particular to rope access technology.

Read on: You will find more about the legal foundations, liability, and standards for fall protection in industry in our review article.

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Benefits of rope access technology

In contrast to other access techniques, rope access technology possesses numerous benefits:

  • Optimum accessibility
    By means of rope access technology, it is possible to reach even parts of facades which are difficult to access using conventional means (or cannot even be serviced or repaired).


  • Low-cost alternative
    Above all, when rope access technology has been considered as early as the building planning stage, it represents a cost-effective variant when compared with cranes, lifting platforms, or scaffolding.


  • Retention of appearance
    Rope access technology can be integrated almost invisibly into the aesthetics of a facade. Numerous components are available to ensure optimum results for all facade types.


  • Safe process
    If the applicable standards are complied with, rope access technology represents a very safe process. Its use requires attendance at training to become a certified worker at height, and there are binding rescue concepts which define standards in the event of an accident.


  • Flexible and short-term operational capability
    A permanently installed safety system allows flexible deployment planning, independent of equipment such as lifting platforms or cranes.


  • Maximum quality
    The INNOTECH planning service provides flexible individualised solutions for your safety systems, thanks to high-class materials and maximum quality.


In many areas, rope access technology displays unbeatable advantages compared with other facade access systems. The flexible short-term deployment without additional equipment is particularly favourable. Safety and cost savings are further positive points.


For which facade types is rope access technology suitable?

Rope access technology is suitable for the overwhelming majority of all modern facade types:

  • Glass facade
    Unobtrusive fastening elements give the impression of a more or less smooth glass surface. The flexible access process allows the user to move horizontally, vertically, or diagonally across the facade.


  • Dynamic facade/intelligent facade
    With the aid of modules, for example, dynamic or intelligent facades create shade at those places on the facade where the solar radiation is especially strong, or use special photovoltaic modules to generate electricity.


  • Greened facade
    Concepts of urban farming or vertical farming, as well as facade greening with climatic effects: Plants release moisture to their surroundings, thus providing cooling effects and filtering the air. In addition, they measurably reduce the effects of noise, heat, and cold. Sufficient space must be planned between the rope access technology and the facade. This can be ensured through the use of STA-10 posts.


  • Double facade
    A heat-insulating closure to the indoor area, and furthermore a second facade to protect against environmental effects. The air located in between is heated by the solar radiation and acts as a heat buffer. Cleaning and servicing of the external facade are possible by means of rope access technology.


  • Panelised facade
    Prefabricated elements of steel, aluminium, or glass are combined into enormous facades. Rope access technology must be planned in from the very start, because retrospective changes to this facade type are often no longer possible.


Specifically for modern facade types, safe and economical access to facades should be discussed as early as the planning stage. Retrospective installation is often linked to high expenditure.

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Planning & implementation of rope access technology

Professional planning and implementation is an essential prerequisite for successful rope access technology: On the one hand it helps to save time and money, and on the other it provides maximum safety in terms of employee protection.


Challenges in planning

  • Fastening: The safety system must be accessible so that it can easily be replaced, such as when a fall stresses the rope. Environmental effects at the deployment location should also be taken into account. They can have a significant effect on the working life of the components.


  • Replacement repairs: In order to provide maximum safety at all times, the securing elements require replacement at intervals. Advance planning ensures that this replacement can be performed rapidly and economically.


  • Installation: Sustainable planning avoids additional expense, e.g. for expensive substructures.


  • System integration: Optimised workforce routes have a minimum number of points requiring disconnection and re-connection. For the climber, these represent addition sources of error, and therefore danger.

Errors in the planning of rope access technology


  • Installation of fasteners in inaccessible locations
    The outcome is that repair or servicing of the system can be performed only under difficult conditions.


  • Inaccessible documentation
    In general there is an obligation to document safety systems which protect from falls. If this documentation is incomplete, then re-documentation must be performed. If this cannot be achieved, then the respective safety system must be replaced and re-documented! Stress can be avoided by using INNO|doc, the documentation software from Innotech.


  • Misuse of systems
    Safety systems must be used only for their intended purpose. Use of rope access technology for other purposes, such as material transport, is not permitted.


Invisible, yet safe: 7 tips for safety systems on facades

Collaboration with experts at an early stage has a beneficial effect on costs, plannability, and long-term safety for the users. Creation of clear and exact requirements as early as the planning phase enables an optimised implementation of rope access technology.

  • Aesthetics, safety, cost effectiveness
    The very top priority should always be safety. Modern rope access technology fulfils all three of these aspects: Timely planning of rope access technology and the early inclusion of experts ensure the best result.


  • Plan sufficient time for the selection
    Facade type and building structure are decisive for selecting the optimum rope access technology. Selection of solutions which are functional and aesthetic, as well as safe, takes time. These require consideration during planning.


  • Planning in good time pays for itself
    Retrospective installation of rope access technology on facades results in significantly greater effort and costs. Through well-planned systems, the cleaning and servicing of facades can be performed at any time and at short notice.


  • Don’t overlook protection of access points
    Those points which permit access to the facade must also be protected by suitable means. For this, something like EAP-Lock or temporary protection is available.


  • Always have a fully developed safety concept
    In order to avoid any form of the illusion of safety, a fully developed safety concept is essential. This consists of matching protective measures which have to be planned and implemented systematically. Involvement of experienced safety experts possessing much practical knowledge can help to avoid errors.


  • Stay flexible
    Rope access technology requires servicing too: Above all, damage to the rope from falls must be repaired quickly, in addition to annual inspections. Flexible systems have the advantage that it is possible to replace just individual modules, without risking the integrity of the complete system. Rail systems, which can be adapted perfectly to the circumstances of the facade, possess this flexibility. They can be adapted onsite to the building shell, and they fulfil every aesthetic, functional, and safety-relevant requirement.


  • Regular servicing
    Remember to maintain and check the system regularly.
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Avoid the illusion of safety on facades

For rope access technology, the illusion of safety is a danger which is as real as it is avoidable. The risks lie in the potential danger of serious or even fatal injuries to employees, as well as in the financial consequences for those responsible. A sustainable safety concept contributes to minimising these risks.


How does the illusion of safety arise?

Safety experts speak of a so-called illusion of safety when safety precautions exist but they cannot achieve their full effectiveness. Perhaps because the correct precautions were not taken, or they are not sufficiently available. In addition to suitable physical safety equipment such as ropes, fastenings, barriers, etc. being available, these must also be used correctly, and an organisational rescue plan must be in place so that, if required, the necessary rescue measures can be implemented without delay.


Dangers of the illusion of safety


  • Injury or death of an employee because of a fall from height


  • High costs because of personnel shortage, machine stoppage, increased insurance premiums, compensation for damages, …


  • Legal consequences for responsible persons (safety experts, company directors)


  • Loss of image


  • Financial risks which threaten a company’s existence


Avoiding safety risks

The dangers related to activities like working in or on facades can indeed never be 100 % excluded. However, the risk can be dramatically reduced through suitable safety management. And, in terms of legal liability, it makes a serious difference whether an accident is caused by negligence or not. The following safety-relevant steps are advisable for all safety systems where height plays a decisive role, regardless whether on facades, on a roof, in industry, or in other danger situations.

  • Inspecting the substructure
    Before installation, the substructure must be inspected, in order that the appropriate safety products and fastening materials are used.


  • Planning
    The rope access technology should be correctly planned, with close cooperation between the specialists (such as safety experts, structural engineers, architect).


  • Installation
    Careful installation by suitable fitters in compliance with the respective installation instructions and standards reduces the danger of installation errors.


  • Documentation
    Complete documentation (including photos) of the safety equipment is the prerequisite for the regular safety inspections, as well as providing evidence in the event of a fall.


  • Anti-fall PPE
    Personal protective equipment (PPE) must be suitable and adapted both for the respective user and for the area of use (type, activity, and deployment location). In addition, industrial climbers must participate in anti-fall PPE training.


  • Rescue measures
    Suitable rescue measures and systems must made available so that assistance can be provided rapidly and effectively in the event of a fall. Users will find background knowledge at Tutorials at MARK Save a Life, for example.


Rope access technology in everyday practice

Rope access technology is a rope-supported access process for installation, cleaning, and service tasks on facades. Certified industrial climbers can thus move within the system with relative flexibility and agility. The following sequence applies to rope access technology on facades:

  • Qualification: Employees must demonstrate successfully completed training in rope access and positioning technology


  • Preparation
    - A risk assessment of the actual situation must be prepared in advance.
    - The rescue concept also must be based on the as-found circumstances (building progress, surroundings, …).
    - Personal protective equipment against falls from a height (anti-fall PPE) is to be inspected for suitability and readiness for use.
    - Rescue gear must be prepared, and kept ready during the use of rope access technology.
    - Weather conditions must be checked and taken into account, depending on the various facade types.


  • Comply with the rules before, during, and after climbing


  • Debriefing and analysis


Exact documentation can be ensured by using the digital INNO|doc documentation tool, for example.


Processes of rope access technology

A basic principle of rope access technology is “permanent redundancy” – i.e. there must be duplicate protection in each position, e.g. in the form of suspension rope and lifeline. In addition, a rescue must be possible whenever it becomes necessary. Depending on the type of task and the circumstances of the facade, different rope access technologies may be used. Three basic processes are distinguished:

  • Vertical access process
    A vertical access process refers to ascent and descent on a vertically hanging rope. Here the user is positioned on a seat board, and various techniques are used for ascent and descent.


  • Horizontal access process
    Horizontal movement based on the alternate loading and easing of load on a lanyard (such as foot loop ascenders).


  • Rope change process
    Complex process which is used e.g. for the rescue of injured persons.
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Rope access technology - use and training

Each country has its own regulations for using and training in rope access technology:


Rope access technology in Germany

The general protection objective when using rope-supported access processes is regulated in Germany in attachment 2 of the Betriebssicherheitsverordnung (BetrSichV [Ordinance on Industrial Safety and Health]), and given concrete form by the Technische Regeln für Betriebssicherheit2121 part 3 (TRBS 2121-3 [Technical Rules for Industrial Safety 2121-3]). According to TRBS 2121-3, particular technical aptitude is a prerequisite for the use of rope access and positioning technologies. Proof of this aptitude can be provided by certificates “Worker at height, level 1”, “Worker at height, level 2” or “Supervisory worker at height, level 3”.

Courses for workers at height, levels 1 to 3 as per FISAT standards are provided by training companies who are autonomously active and financially independent of the association. The legislation requires annual instruction, and FISAT certifications are therefore always valid for a single year only. Successful participation in a refresher course extends the certification by a further year. The FISAT level (German Association for Rope Access) specifies the directions in which climbers may move on the basis of their training level:

  • Level 1 workers at height are users with basic knowledge, and are trained in vertical access processes and in workplace positioning.


  • Level 2 workers at height are users with basic knowledge with enhanced knowledge, and are trained in vertical and horizontal access processes and in workplace positioning. The Level 2 knowledge and skills build on the basic knowledge from Level 1.


  • Level 3 supervisory workers at height are users who are responsible for the safe execution of work on a construction site at height. They are trained in advanced vertical, horizontal, and diagonal access and positioning processes. The Level 3 knowledge and skills build on the basic knowledge from Level 1 and the enhanced knowledge from Level 2.


Rope access technology in Austria

To practise rope access and positioning technology on facades, appropriate training (e.g. FISAT, IRATA) to become a certified worker at height must be given. This training simultaneously forms the basis of working using rope access technology. Once implemented on a facade, a rope access technology system may be used only by certified and competent persons. These users must meet the following requirements:

  • Medical fitness verified by an occupational medical exam as per guideline G41


  • First-aid class lasting at least 1 day arranged by the employer


  • Minimum age of 18 years




According to PSA-V (regulation on personal protective equipment), annual instruction about personal protective equipment is required. § 6 Abs 8 Z 7 BauV further requires that “the affected employees are to be trained particularly in the intended work process, especially regarding the rescue process”. This special training can be obtained by participating in training certified by IRATA, for example. IRATA stands for the International Industrial Rope Access Trade Association. Up to now, this is the only worldwide association active in the area of certified working at height. The training courses certified by IRATA for becoming an industrial climber enjoy high recognition worldwide, and in many cases, it is not possible to obtain work involving rope access technology without an IRATA certificate.


Rescue systems for saving lives

According to Allgemeine Unfallversicherungsanstalt (AUVA) [Austrian accident insurance institution], every year around 15,000 accidents occur in Austria where the cause is a fall, and 17 deaths result. With appropriate planning, equipment, and training concepts, this figure could be significantly reduced. Accidents and personal injury can be avoided only if all people involved are conscious of the danger situation and are able to perform safety and rescue measures competently.  However, this requires much practice and a holistic rescue concept. In terms of personal rescue in the event of a fall, Innotech offers a rescue training course, so that industrial climbers are able to help rapidly and expertly in an emergency.

In an accident, the rescue measures must be instigated immediately and professionally; delays or even the lack of a plan can have fatal consequences. Detailed rescue concepts must be drawn up in advance, the corresponding rescue gear must be ready, and the employees must be appropriately trained, so that, even under the difficult conditions of a real emergency, the rescue concept can be implemented correctly. A roughly drafted sequence for a rescue concept could look something like this:

  • Recognise the situation and cease normal working activities.


  • Establish contact with the person who has suffered the accident, obtain an overview of the situation.


  • Make an emergency call, and make reference to a potential life-threatening suspension trauma. For remote locations (e.g. wind turbines) provide the geodata.


  • Instigate rescue measures immediately, free the person from the situation in order to prevent a suspension trauma.


  • Bring the person who has suffered the accident to a safe location, start first-aid measures, and instruct the rescue personnel if necessary.


  • Transfer the person who has suffered the accident to the rescue service, providing all relevant information.


  • Repair and servicing of the safety system
    - Inspection of the fall protection system by a certified expert
    - Inspection of the safety system and replacement of all stressed and deformed parts.
    - Complete replacement of sliders and anti-fall PPE (harnesses, ropes, etc.)


Summary: Rope access technology on facades

Although rope access technology on facades is nothing new in principle, it has still only recently been developing its full potential as authorised working equipment. Thanks to the aesthetically pleasing systems which adapt optimally to the characteristics of buildings if planned early enough, increasing numbers of architects and developers are putting their faith into these almost invisible safety systems.

Still want to find out more about rope access technology? Then download our free White Paper as well.

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